Meluruskan Pandangan Terhadap Bulan Muharram

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Meluruskan Pandangan Terhadap Bulan Muharram

            Beberapa hari lagi kita akan meninggalkan tahun 1436 H sekaligus memasuki tahun baru Islam (Hijriyah) 1437.Dalam tahun Hijriyah, akhir tahun ditutup dengan bulan Dzulhijjah sedangkan awal tahun dibuka dengan bulan Muharram. Beberapa pandangan telah sekian lama tertanam pada sebagian muslimin manakala berada di penghujung dan awal tahun Hijriyah. Maraknya penyelenggaraan hajatan di bulan Dzulhijjah (Besar, Jw) karena anggapan beruntung terhadap bulan tersebut. Sebaliknya, mereka merasa khawatir atau pantangan mengadakan acara hajatan di bulan Muharram (Suro, Jw) karena anggapan sial terhadap bulan tersebut. Belum lagi perayaan 1 Muharram (Suroan, Jw) yang diselenggarakan dengan semarak di banyak tempat.

            Apapun yang dilakukan oleh manusia (sekalipun berjumlah mayoritas) dengan beragam alasannya, kita sebagai umat Nabi Muhammad Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam telah memiliki tolok ukur untuk menilai itu semua. Tolok ukur berupa Al Qur’an dan Sunnah Nabi dengan bimbingan as-Salaf ash-Shalih  Ahlussunnah Wal Jama’ah.Jadi,  bukan tolok ukur yang sangat nisbi seperti : perasaan, akal pikiran (logika), adat istiadat semata atau sejenis itu.

            Dengan cara demikian ini kita akan senantiasa terbimbing, kokoh di atas kebaikan sekaligus menilai segala sesuatu secara ilmiah, tidak fanatik (ashabiyah) atau sekedar ikut-ikutan (taqlid). Ashabiyah dan taqlid sendiri adalah 2 sifat yang sangat tercela dan dapat membutakan mata hati seseorang dari hakikat kebenaran.

             Kini, sejenak kita meninjau beberapa pandangan sebagian saudara-saudara kita terkait bulan Muharram. Mudah-mudahan Allah membukakan kalbu (hati) kita untuk mencintai kebenaran dan menitinya.

Anggapan Sial Terhadap Bulan Muharram

            Anggapan sial dikenal di kalangan Arab dengan istilah Tathayyur atau Thiyarah. Kajian tentang Tathayyur atau Thiyarah pernah kita singgung pada edisi ke-4 tahun ke-5. Pada edisi tersebut dikatakan, bahwa Tathayyur atau Thiyarah (terlepas apa wujudnya dalam bentuk ucapan atau perbuatan tertentu) adalah perilaku sebagian orang-orang kafir zaman dulu dan ia adalah perkara yang sangat dilarang oleh Islam. Thiyarah atau Tathayyur sangat dilarang karena termasuk kesyirikan kepada Allah.Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam bersabda (artinya) : “Thiyarah adalah kesyirikan, Thiyarah adalah kesyirikan, Thiyarah adalah kesyirikan”. (HR.Abu Dawud yang dishahihkan oleh asy-Syaikh al-Albani dan asy-Syaikh Muqbil)

            Kalau anggapan sial tersebut hanya terlintas dalam benak seseorang lalu segera ditepis dengan tawakal sepenuhnya kepada Allah semata, maka orang tersebut belum terjatuh ke dalam kesyirikan. Adapun kalau anggapan sial tersebut sampai menghalangi dirinya dari menunaikan keinginan atau hajat, maka ia telah terjatuh ke dalam kesyirikan. Nah, keadaan yang terakhir inilah yang menimpa sebagian saudara kita muslimin. Itu terlihat dari keengganan atau pantangan mereka menyelenggarakan hajatan seperti pesta pernikahan di bulan Muharram atau Suro. Entah hal itu karena keyakinan atau kekhawatiran bahwa bahtera keluarga akan tertimpa petaka jika pernikahannya diselenggarakan di bulan Muharram atau Suro, ataukah semata-mata ikut-ikutan leluhur. Namun yang jelas itu semua tidaklah benar. Maka apakah yang demikian itu kita biarkan begitu saja tanpa kita beritahu atau ingatkan mereka, sebagai salah satu wujud kecintaan kita kepada mereka ?! Relakah kita melihat mereka terjatuh ke dalam dosa yang sangat besar di sisi Allah dan dapat membinasakan dunia sekaligus akherat mereka ?!

            Singkat kata, bulan Muharram bukanlah bulan yang dapat mendatangkan atau menyebabkan malapetaka bagi seseorang. Akan tetapi menurut Islam, bulan Muharram adalah salah satu dari 4 bulan yang memiliki kehormatan (Arba’atun Hurum) yang kita lebih ditekankan untuk beramal shalih dan menjauhi dosa.

Perayaan Tahun Baru Islam

            Di sisi lain, ada sebuah ritual tahunan yang dilakukan oleh banyak saudara kita di awal tahun Hijriyah. Ritual tahunan berupa perayaan tahun baru Islam yang di suatu daerah dikenal dengan istilah Grebeg Suro. Terkait sub bab ini, dapat kita katakan :

1)    Apapun nama dan rangkaian ritual perayaan tahun baru Islam, yang jelas perayaan tahun baru Islam bukan berasal dari Islam sedikit pun.Nabi kita, 3 generasi utama umat ini (para sahabat, tabi’in dan atba’ut tabi’in) sekaligus 4 imam mazhab terbesar (Abu Hanifah, Malik, asy-Syafi’i dan Ahmad bin Hanbal) tidak pernah mengenal perayaan tersebut, apalagi menganjurkan atau mengamalkannya, sekalipun dengan istilah Arab. Perayaan atau hari besar tahunan yang dikenal dan dikerjakan oleh manusia-manusia terbaik di atas hanyalah ada 2 bentuk, tidak ada yang ke-3, yaitu : Idul Fitri dan Idul Adha.

2)    Penetapan tahun Islam yang dimulai dari bulan Muharram itu sendiri, asalnya sekedar untuk mengetahui tanggal suatu surat atau dokumen di masa kekhilafahan Umar bin al-Khaththab radhiyallahu ‘anhu.Tidak lebih dari itu. Beberapa riwayat tentang asal muasal penetapan tahun Islam dapat dilihat di kitab Fathul Bari Syarh Shahih al-Bukhari  (hadits no.3934 dan 3935) karya seorang ulama besar mazhab asy-Syafi’i, yaitu al-Hafizh Ibnu Hajar rahimahullah.

3)    Ternyata pihak yang pertama kali menyelenggarakan peringatan atau perayaan tahun baru Islam adalah para raja Bani Ubaidiyah Fathimiyah yang berpemahaman Syi’ah Rafidhah di Mesir.Kerajaan Bani Ubaidiyah sendiri dikenal sebagai penebar beragam bentuk penyimpangan dan kerusakan di muka bumi. Jika begitu, akankah sebagian kita mengambil sebuah cara baru dalam agama dari kaum yang sangat buruk keadaan agamanya ?! Maka mengetahui secara pasti sejarah asal usul sebuah amaliah yang diatasnamakan Islam adalah perkara sangat penting, agar kita tidak salah dalam beragama.

4)    Perayaan tahun baru Islam yang sebenarnya bukan ajaran Islam, tidak jarang mengandung beberapa perkara yang sangat jauh dari tuntunan Islam itu sendiri, seperti : alunan kesenian musik (sekalipun tidak jarang dikemas dengan nama Islami), campur baur pria dengan wanita bukan mahram (ikhthilath), dandanan para wanita muslimah yang bertentangan dengan norma Islam sesungguhnya (tabarruj), menyia-nyiakan harta, bahkan pada acara Grebeg Suro terdapat persembahan sesaji yang identik dengan keyakinan agama Hindu. Grebeg Suro sendiri adalah salah satu model sinkretisasi budaya Jawa (yang tidak jarang mengandung keyakinan agama Hindu) dengan sesuatu yang diatasnamakan Islam padahal bukan dari Islam, yaitu perayaan tahun baru Islam. Akan tetapi acara ini terasa berat ditinggalkan oleh sebagian saudara kita karena dianggap sebagai budaya daerah yang hendaknya dilestarikan sekaligus komoditi wisata yang dapat mendatangkan pendapatan daerah. Tentu saja, alasan semacam ini bukan alasan yang ilmiah, karena hanya berdasarkan logika atau perasaan, bukan dalil (ilmu). Bukankah Allah melarang dari sikap (ucapan atau perbuatan) yang tidak dibangun di atas ilmu (lihat Surat Al Isra’ : 36), sikap mengutamakan kepentingan duniawi dibanding kepentingan ukhrawi tatkala saling bertentangan (lihat Surat Al A’la : 16) dan sikap fanatik (ashabiyah) budaya leluhur yang bertentangan dengan Islam (lihat Surat Al Maidah : 104) ?!

5)    Perayaan tahun baru telah berkali-kali diselenggarakan dengan tujuan meningkatkan iman dan takwa kepada Allah.Namun kenyataannya, tujuan tersebut tidak pernah tercapai dengan sebenar-benarnya. Perlu kiranya kita merenung meski sejenak : Mungkinkah sebuah acara yang tidak ada tuntunannya sama sekali dalam Islam, dapat meningkatkan iman, takwa dan Islam seseorang ?! Bahkan beberapa acara dalam perayaan ini lebih nyata bersifat seremonialnya dibanding siraman rohani.

6)    Kita khawatir langkah mengadakan perayaan tahun baru Islam itu ada unsur penyerupaan (tasyabbuh) dengan langkah orang-orang Nasrani mengadakan perayaan tahun baru Masehi. Unsur tasyabbuhnya dari sisi : menjadikan tahun baru sebagai suatu perayaan bahkan hari libur, meski ada beberapa perbedaan dalam ritual acaranya.Tasyabbuh dengan orang-orang kafir dalam perkara yang menjadi ciri khas mereka adalah perkara yang diharamkan oleh Islam, baik pelakunya berniat meniru maupun tidak. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam bersabda (artinya) : “Barangsiapa meniru suatu kaum, maka ia termasuk dari kaum tersebut”.(HR.Abu Dawud  yang dikatakan oleh asy-Syaikh al-Albani : “Hasan Shahih”)

Catatan

            Termasuk perkara yang hendaknya juga dihindari adalah mengkhususkan tahun baru Islam dengan acara pengajian, tasyakuran, doa bersama atau sejenis itu, karena itu semua tidak pernah dilakukan oleh Nabi, para sahabat dan generasi umat Islam yang mengikuti mereka dengan baik. Jika acara-acara tadi bertujuan untuk introspeksi diri (muhasabah), maka tujuan yang baik tidaklah cukup hingga ditimbang dengan bimbingan Nabi dan generasi terbaik umat ini. Apalagi muhasabah tidaklah harus menunggu akhir tahun lama dan awal tahun baru. Mestinya muhasabah itu kita lakukan di sepanjang hidup kita, karena kita memang sering berbuat kesalahan dan dosa.

Yang Disyariatkan Justru Terlupakan

            Benarlah apa yang telah dikatakan oleh seorang ulama dari kalangan tabi’in, Abu Idris al-Khaulani rahimahullah. Beliau berkata : Tidaklah suatu umat mengada-ada sebuah kebid’ahan dalam urusan agama mereka, melainkan Allah akan cabut sebuah sunnah dari mereka”. (Al I’tisham karya al-Imam asy-Syathibi)

            Demikian ini yang kita saksikan sekarang di tengah-tengah sebagian muslimin. Tatkala mereka mengadakan sebuah acara yang tidak dituntunkan di dalam Islam, ternyata mereka tidak mengenal, mengabaikan atau meninggalkan sebuah sunnah (bimbingan Nabi). Bimbingan untuk melakukan puasa sunnah pada bulan Muharram, terkhusus tanggal 9 (Tasu’a’) dan 10 (‘Asyura’) telah dilalaikan oleh sebagian mereka.Padahal, Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam telah bersabda (artinya) : “Bila tahun depan (aku masih hidup) insya Allah kita akan melakukan puasa Tasu’a’ juga”.(HR.Muslim)

            Beliau juga bersabda ketika ditanya tentang Puasa ‘Asyura’ (artinya) : “Menghapus dosa-dosa (kecil, pen) yang dilakukan setahun yang lalu”.(HR.Muslim)

            Kalau Islam yang sesungguhnya memberikan anjuran di tanggal 10 Muharram untuk berpuasa, maka agama Syi’ah Rafidhah memiliki cara lain.Penganut agama Syi’ah Rafidhah justru mengadakan sebuah perayaan khusus pada tanggal 10 Muharram untuk mengenang terbunuhnya Husain bin Ali bin Abi Thalib radhiyallahu ‘anhuma.Dalam perayaan bid’ah yang diberi nama Asyura tersebut, mereka meratap dan mengungkapkan kesedihan atas terbunuhnya putra Ali bin Abi Thalib sekaligus cucu Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam tersebut.Meratap apalagi diungkapkan dalam bentuk perayaan rutin saja sudah jelas terlarang dalam Islam, lalu bagaimana halnya jika ditambah unsur kedustaan di balik perayaan tersebut ?! Ya ! Sejarah membuktikan bahwa terbunuhnya sahabat mulia Husain radhiyallahu ‘anhuma justru akibat kejahatan kaum Syi’ah Rafidhah sendiri.Inilah secuil dari segudang kedustaan yang ada pada kaum Syi’ah Rafidhah.

Wallahu a’lamu bish-Shawab

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