Riba dan beberapa masalah terkait dengannya

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Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala menurunkan Al Quran sebagai petunjuk bagi seluruh manusia. Dia mengutus Nabi Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam sebagai perantara antara Sang Khaliq dengan para makhluk-Nya. Maka, kita umat Islam seharusnya menjadikan Al Quran dan As Sunnah sebagai pedoman hidup kita.
Kita menyaksikan bahwa transaksi/muamalah riba terjadi di berbagai sendi kehidupan masyarakat; bahkan mungkin dianggap riba merupakan suatu hal yang menjadi keharusan di era modern ini. Lebih parahnya, sebagian orang yang dianggap memiliki ilmu agama turut melegalkan praktek riba.

Sebagian dalil haramnya riba
1. Ayat dalam surat Al Baqarah ayat 278-279 (artinya) : “Wahai orang – orang yang beriman, bertakwalah kepada Allah dan tinggalkanlah harta riba yang tersisa pada kalian kalau kalian memang orang beriman. Kalau kalan tidak melakukannya, maka yakinilah akan adanya peperangan dari Allah dan rasul-Nya. Kalau kalian bertaubat maka kalian berhak mendapat harta pokok kalian. Kalian tidak menzhalimi dan tidak dizhalimi.”
Para ulama mengatakan bahwa tidaklah Allah di dalam kitab-Nya mengumumkan peperangan kepada suatu golongan seperti yang Allah lakukan bagi para pelaku riba.
Syaikhul Islam berkata bahwa tidaklah datang ancaman dalam kitabullah terhadap suatu perbuatan dosa-selain syirik kepada Allah-yanglebih berat dari ancaman terhadap riba.
2. Ayat dalam surat Al Baqarah ayat 276 (artinya ) : “Allah membinasakan riba dan menyuburkan sedekah.” Binasanya harta riba bisa secara hakiki/kenyataan di dunia dengan Allah menghilangkan barokah harta riba itu, bisa pula dengan menjadikan orang yang praktek riba pada akhirnya menjadi miskin. Dan terjadi pula di akhirat yaitu berjumpa Allah dalam keadaan merugi/bangkrut.
3. Hadits (artinya ) : “Jauhilah tujuh hal yang membinasakan :…kemudian disebutkan diantaranya adalah orang yang memakan riba.” (HR.Bukhari Muslim dari shahabat Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu)
4. Hadits mimpi Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam dimana beliau melihat ada seorang yang berenang di sebuah sungai yang airnya merah seperti darah. Orang tersebut setiap akan menepi, mulutnya dilempari batu oleh seseorang yang berada di tepi sungai sampai dia menelan batu itu. Dia kemudian kembali ke tengah sungai. Demikianlah setiap dia akan menepi, maka dilempari batu sampai menelannya dan kembali ke tengah sungai. Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam kemudian menyebutkan bahwa itulah pemakan riba. (HR. Bukhari dari shahabat Samurah radhiyallahu ‘anhu)

Ini hanya sebagian kecil dalil – dalil yang menjelaskan haramnya riba. Secara umum, keharaman riba telah disepakati oleh para ulama muslimin.

Fenomena Riba di Perbankan
Praktek riba terjadi secara jelas di berbagai bank, baik dalam bunga tabungan, pemberian kredit, dan sebagainya. Namun, bank sudah terlanjur dianggap sebagai sebuah pondasi penting dari sistem ekonomi modern. Bahkan ada yang berujar bahwa tidak akan kuat ekonomi suatu negeri kecuali dengan peran bank dan tidak ada bank kecuali pasti mengandung unsur riba. Yang lain berkata bahwa praktek riba yang ada di sistem perbankan adalah suatu kondisi darurat yang mau tidak mau kita terpaksa melakukannya. Ada pula yang mengatakan bahwa riba yang haram adalah riba konsumsi dimana salah satu pihak dirugikan; adapun riba yang bersifat produktif/untuk pengembangan usaha dan saling menguntungkan maka tidaklah haram.
Dan masih banyak alasan – alasan lain yang berujuan menghalalkan praktek riba yang terjadi berbagai bank.
Satu hal penting disini bahwa sejarah mencatat kejayaan Islam sejak zaman rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam , berlanjut pada masa Khulafaur Rasyidin, masa Dinasti Umawiyah dan Dinasti Abbasiyah; dimana wilayah Islam terbentang dari ujung Cina sampai Spanyol. Umat Islam ketika itu jauh dari praktek riba padahal kaum kafir telah mempraktekkannya sejak dulu kala. Namun, ketika iman umat Islam melemah dan jauh dari ajaran Islam yang murni; masuklah berbagai pemikiran kafir dan diterima oleh umat Islam diantaranya praktek riba yang dilegalkan dengan nama bank. Akibatnya, kemunduran demi kemunduran terus dialami umat Islam sampai hari ini dan entah kapan akan berakhir.
Hal lainnya yang perlu kita ketahui bahwa praktek riba yang bersifat produktif dan saling menguntungkan sudah ada sejak dahulu dan nyatanya Allah dan Rasul-Nya tetap mengharamkan riba secara umum, baik yang bersifat konsumtif maupun produktif.

Fenomena Bank Syariah
Mulai muncul di awal abad ke-20 dan diharapkan menjadi harapan baru umat Islam untuk melawan sistem ekonomi kafir. Dengan berbagai program bernafaskan Islam seperti mudharabah, murabahah, ijarah, dsb bank syariah mulai mendapat tempat di hati umat Islam. Namun, ternyata kalau dicermati lebih jauh, sampai sekarang bank – bank syariah tersebut belum bebas dari unsur riba. Hal ini diakui oleh pihak – pihak yang berkecimpung di dalamnya dan dia mau bersikap adil dan obyektif. Bahkan, bisa dibilang bahwa perbankan syariah lebih parah dibanding perbankan konvensional/non syariah dari beberapa sisi, diantaranya :
– Mengatasnamakan agama padahal agama Islam berlepas diri dari praktek riba yang ada di dalamnya.
– Menimbulkan kerancuan terhadap umat Islam yang ingin benar – benar kembali kepada sistem ekonomi Islam.
– Persentase bunga/riba yang ada dalam bank syariah lebih besar dibanding bank biasa.

Beberapa Problem dan Jawabannya
1. Bagaimana hukum menjadi pegawai bank dan gaji yang diterimanya?
Jawab : Kalau dia bekerja di bagian yang tidak berurusan dengan transaksi riba, misalnya di bagian valuta asing, maka tidak mengapa. Adapun kalau pada bagian yang berurusan dengan praktek riba (seperti bagian simpan pinjam) maka hukumnya haram dan gaji yang diterimapun haram. Termasuk disini menjadi satpam bank dan sopir kendaraan yang dipakai oleh tim debt collector atau penagih utang. Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda (artinya) : “ Rasulullah melaknat pemakan riba, yang memberi makan dari hasil riba, penulis transaksi riba, dan saksi transaksi riba. “ Beliau menyatakan bahwa mereka semua sama. (HR.Muslim)
2. Bagaimana hukum menyimpan uang di bank?
Jawab : Tidak boleh, kecuali kalau dia merasa khawatir terkait keamanan ketika menyimpan uang di rumahnya. Dalam hal ini dia tidak boleh memanfaatkan bunga yang didapat dari simpanannya di bank untuk kepentingan pribadinya.
3. Bagaimana dengan bunga yang didapat?
Jawab : Bunga riba yang didapat adalah haram dan bukan merupakan hak kita. Sebagian ulama berpendapat bunganya dibiarkan di bank dan sebagian ulama yang lain mengatakan bunganya diambil dan dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan umum seperti perbaikan jalan dan membangun WC umum. Bunga riba tidak boleh dipakai untuk sesuatu yang bernilai ibadah seperti membangun masjid, wakaf tanah untuk pesantren, dsb. Bisa pula bunga bank ini diberikan kepada fakir miskin atau membantu orang lain yang kesulitan membayar hutang. Perlu dicatat, bahwa ketika dia memanfaatkan bunga bank ini, dia tidak boleh meniatkan sedekah. Niatnya adalah membersihkan diri dan hartanya dari unsur yang haram.
4. Bagaimana dengan orang yang baru tahu tentang haramnya bunga bank padahal di masa lampau telah menikmatinya dan bercampur hartanya yang halal dan yang haram?
Jawab : Allah mengatakan (artinya) : “Barangsiapa yang sampai kepadanya larangan dari rabb/tuhannya [tentang larangan riba] kemudian dia berhenti darinya [ketika itu]; maka baginya apa yang telah dia dapat di masa lampau…” (Al Baqarah 275). Maka, halal baginya seluruh apa yang dia dapat di masa lalunya-ketika dia tidak tahu tentang haramnya riba/bunga bank- baik harta pokoknya maupun bunganya.
5. Bagaimana hukum menerima pemberian dari orang yang penghasilannya haram seperti yang berkecimpung dalam dunia riba?
Jawab : Boleh menerima pemberian tersebut dengan dalil bahwa Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menerima hadiah dari Yahudi padahal telah dimaklumi bersama bahwa Yahudi sejak dulu harta mereka kebanyakan berasal dari harta yang haram terutama dari hasil riba. Selain itu, mungkin saja pemberi hadiah tersebut mendapat penghasilan dari jalan yang lain, seperti warisan, hadiah, hibah, dan sebagainya.
6. Bagaimana hukum berhubungan dengan bank pada bentuk kerjasama yang asalnya halal?
Jawab : Boleh, misalnya menyewa kotak besi yang ada di sebagian bank untuk menyimpan harta berharga seperti dokumen, emas, dsb. Begitu pula seandainya bank mengadakan bursa penjualan mobil atau perabot rumah tangga; maka boleh melakukan jual beli dengan bank. (Fatwa Syaikh Ibnu Utsaimin)
7. Bagaimana hukum menerima gaji dari perusahaan atau pemerintah yang disalurkan lewat bank?
Jawab : Boleh (tentu selama hukum asal dari pekerjaannya adalah halal) (Fatwa Syaikh Ibnu Utsaimin)

Penutup
Masih banyak hal – hal lain terkait dengan riba dan perbankan termasuk bagaimana menjawab secara lebih luas berbagai alasan yang dilontarkan sebagian pihak demi melegalkan praktek riba yang ada.
Sebagai nasihat buat kita semua, Allah mengatakan (artinya) : “Barangsiapa bertakwa kepada Allah maka Allah akan memberi jalan keluar dan Allah akan memberinya rizki dari arah yang tidak dia sangka. (Ath Thalaq 2-3). Nabi kita shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mengatakan (artinya) : “ Barangsiapa meninggalkan sesuatu karena Allah maka Allah akan ganti yang lebih baik.”

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